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2014 Letter

2015 Letter

Neural Dichotomy and the Fragility of the Human Psyche

Madara

Sector of Information Security and Natural Philosophy

Hackerspace of North America madara@hackers.xxx

1.1.2020

I. Preface
For the past decade there has been a significant increase in the amount of mental health cases and concerns across the world and more specifically in the United States of America; and it is clearly highlighted throughout social media, news outlets, and other forms of communication. Most of those cases emerging from the experiences of those whom it was already too late or those that bask in despair and are unwilling to seek help – if they are even able to at all. In the past, and also more recently, mental disturbances have been plaguing myself as well even to the point of a brief, but powerful mental disassociation causing me to lash out in unexpected ways that are normally uncharacteristic of me. These disassociations are also being compounded by a more non-contagious physiological disease that leaves my body in a constant state of pain and discomfort; and it is seemingly growing worse as it is beginning to affect my bones and can sometimes be accentuated by hunger and or a lack of sleep (which is fairly common for me due to said pain); making even trivial tasks like holding a dinner plate for a period of time somewhat difficult; and to make matters worse, there's no cure nor does anybody other than those that are afflicted truly understand the experience. It seems that there are still people in the world that think that these sorts of issues can simply be “walked off” by going outside or by completely suppressing it into what perhaps could be considered the subconscious in order to “just get over it”.

Individuals who have become depressed stemming from external stimuli such as job loss, the passing of a loved one, or something more trivial most likely can “walk it off” in due time, however, mental instability caused by a neurochemical imbalance is not as easy to rectify. There are many factors as to what causes these imbalances and most are actually fairly common such as, language (passive-aggressive comments and micro-aggressions), the arrangement of a room, the affects of a foreign neurochemical, and even natural imbalance caused by malformation within certain regions of the brain. It is often difficult to diagnose those that may be troubled, but there are signs that typically manifest before any damage can be done because of such an imbalance whether it is psychological, emotional, or physiological; however, the trick to determining these signs is to actually be aware of such signals like reclusiveness, lack of appetite, irrational thoughts (which is actually something I've personally been dealing with), and other irregularities.

The psychological health of a person should not be held lightly like it has been for ages before as it is one of the most important aspects of a human other than the body itself. Without a healthy state of mind it becomes evident that everyday tasks become more difficult. That difficulty only increases when those that are around someone with such a dis-ease ignore or even worse compound the issue by making toxic remarks regarding how that person may be acting instead of respectfully inquiring why that may be. It is better to ask a person how they're feeling or to know when to leave them alone in certain cases in order to avoid confrontation or other undesired reactions. Sometimes all a person may need though is another to be with them even if it's in total silence as it shows that that person cares, but doesn't want to push the boundaries of the one in pain. Another strategy would to allow the person in need to talk without interjecting subjective bias that might lower their morale (I have personally experienced this even from my own friends and family) perhaps making them feel inferior than they actually are.

With those things in mind I would like to move forward and discuss how such afflictions may occur, what we can do to either remedy or cure them, and how such illnesses may be perceived in the future. However, before moving on I would like to take a moment in order to sincerely apologize to those that I have recently hurt due to my own aforementioned conditions and others. I wish to convey that the things said and done were completely unintentional and were not thought through if at all as at that time a mental shift was occurring, and not for the better. There really are no words to be said that could ultimately warrant forgiveness and so I only hope that this letter is seen by those affected by my actions and for my written word to be considered. I would also like to thank the person that held me as I wept uncontrollably after the incident and for reassuring me that mistakes happen; and that in due time bonds can be reforged and that we must be there for each other regardless of how difficult times may be or become.

II. Neural Structures
Quite frankly the human brain is an extremely intrinsic and complex organ that is the main processing unit of the body. It controls everything from our bipedal movement to how we might interpret the fragrance of a vegetable or the perfume of a fruit. Even more complex is the mystery of what regions of the brain control what and whether or not the brain itself is actually regenerative. In order to further our understanding of which region is designated to what we must first come to know about the different regions in and of themselves and how they are formed; however, we must remember that isolating a particular region or function of the brain does not constitute the entire relationship between either one. Claims that one half of the brain holds one duty while the other half holds another is more of an over-simplification and mostly inaccurate. Considering how complex the human brain is, it is rather difficult to imagine that a specific part of the organ controls multiple functions without any connection to another region. For instance, most people will associate the left hemisphere of the brain to be dedicated solely to logical operations and thwarts any attempt at creativity, and the inverse is typically said of the right hemisphere; being that the right hemisphere is dedicated solely to creative functions and aids not in any logical calculations. Those claims are again fairly skewed from the truth and hold little to no value in traditional scientific environments.

The three major parts of the brain can be divided into the following regions, the brain stem, the cerebrum, and the cerebellum. Even though each of these structures is essential it is the cerebrum that is the most critical for it involves higher processes such as memory and learning. Even more so the cerebrum has a skin-like surface measuring around less than one-fourth of an inch thick (during maturity) called the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is responsible for the brains most advanced activities such as planning and decision making which is a critical mechanism for most modern humans and even aboriginals. The most iconic trademark of the human brain is what are called gyri and sulci, and they are the ridges and grooves that form the unmistakeable wrinkled appearance of the brain. The folds from said gyri and sulci appear during prenatal development as they actually increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex in order to allow more brain matter to be compressed inside of the skull. Gyri and sulci are also widely used to subdivide the cerebral cortex into smaller units called lobes, and each hemisphere of the brain contains four distinct lobes.

The occipital lobe being the smallest of the four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere is located in the rear of the brain, under the occipital bone, and actually rests on the tentorium cerebelli which separates it from the rest of the cerebellum. It is responsible for visual processing, spacial recognition, color coordination, object and facial recognition, and memory formation. Located superior to the occipital lobes are the parietal lobes which are also positioned posterior to the central sulcus and frontal lobes; the central sulcus being a large depression that separates the parietal and frontal lobes. The somatosensory cortex can also be found within the parietal lobes and is essential for receiving and processing sensory information from throughout the body. Said information is typically received from the thalamus which relays signals between the nervous system and the cerebral cortex. The parietal lobes are also important for understanding spatial orientation and for proper navigation; also aiding in the identification of position, location, and movement of the body and its numerous limbs. There are other functions it is responsible for as well such as speech and mathematical computations.

Sound processing and a host of other functions are what many consider the temporal lobe to be designated for as it is a region of the brain where auditory language and speech comprehension mechanisms are mainly located. Although, the temporal lobe is not only for sound and language processing as the middle sections of the temporal lobe are thought to contain conceptual representations for semantic knowledge; and more inferior and posterior temporal lobe areas are even more akin to representing visual objects. Working in tandem with all of the other lobes and comprising more than two-thirds of the human brain are the frontal lobes. The frontal lobes have remained mysterious for quite a period of time and their functions are still not entirely understood. Until recently there has only been fragmented information about the processes of the frontal lobes with the exception of their well-known aptitude in motor function and language.

With technological advancement consistently increasing, important roles for the frontal lobes have been discovered and documented. A portion of such roles include, but are not limited to, cognitive processes such as, executive functions, attention, memory, and language; and invigorating new studies are also showcasing the importance of the frontal lobes in multiple other underlying processes that affect mood, personality, self-awareness, and among others, social and moral reasoning. The frontal lobes are considered to be the behavior and emotional control center and home to our personality. No other part of the brain is affected as widely as the frontal lobes are from say a lesion which can cause a variety of severe symptoms; even the most rigid of brain regions can end up devoid of function from something simple such as too much of a particular neurotransmitter; even if it's only a few extra molecules.

III. Neurogenesis
It is said that when a human is born that they have all of the neurons in their brain that they will ever need and that said neurons can never be rearranged, repurposed, nor can new neurons be attained. As with much of the scrutiny in science and philosophy in the last century, that claim too has been scrutinized. During the early 1960's a scientist named Joseph Altman challenged the belief when he saw evidence of what is known as, neurogenesis, or the birth of new neurons in a region of an adult rat brain called the hippocampus. He later reported that newborn neurons migrated from their birthplace in the hippocampus to other parts of the brain. In 1979, another scientist, Michael Kaplan, confirmed Altman's findings in the rat brain, and in 1983 he found neural precursor cells (neural stem cells) in the forebrain of an adult monkey.

The structure of a neuron is surprisingly simple, however, how a neuron coordinates itself and conducts its innate function is somewhat complex, but can be understood considering the dichotomous nature of the neuron itself. A neuron has three main components consisting of the soma or cell body which receives and processes electro-chemical signals, an axon which is responsible for sending said signals, and dendrites which are dichotomous tree like structures which relay electrical signals to other neurons. The cell body or soma is the neuron's control center as it is tasked with storing DNA and generating energy that will be used by the cell among a list of other duties. In addition to a nucleus, the soma contains other cellular organelles too; objects with distinctive structure and function that are also found within all living animal cells. The soma is the site of major metabolic activity in the neuron; and they are typically found to range widely from 0.005 micrometers to 0.1 micrometers in most mammals. Collections of soma are also responsible for giving the grey appearance in the grey matter of the brain. Proteins containing pigments can be found in high concentration in the nucleus and other cell structures of the soma, creating the greyish coloration.

When a neuron receives a chemical signal from another neuron, the receiver becomes electrically charged in relation to the surrounding fluid outside its membrane. The charge then travels down the neuron's axon, away from the soma, and toward the axon's terminals to be held in storage structures called vesicles. Vesicles contain chemicals manufactured and delivered by the cell body. When an electrical charge arrives at the terminal, the charge causes said vesicles to fuse with the terminal's cell membrane, pushing the contents (neurotransmitters) out of the cell and into a synaptic cleft. The sender neuron then returns to a resting state while the neurotransmitters it relayed from the synaptic cleft arrive and bind to the receiver's dendrite membrane. Every time a neurotransmitter from the sender binds with a receptor on the receiver, ions from the fluid surrounding the cells enter the receiver through the previously unlocked receptor. As a result, the receiver develops an electrical charge, thus becoming a sender itself, and the process continues.

The extent to which new neurons are generated in the brain is somewhat a controversial subject among neuroscientists, however, there is evidence that support that neurogenesis is a lifelong process. Typically neurons are born in areas of the brain that are rich in a concentrations of neural precursor cells; as stated above about the hippocampus. Said cells have the potential to generate most, if not all, of the different types of neurons found in the brain such as, sensory neurons, motor neurons, and all other neurons called interneurons. Neural stem cells increase by dividing in two and producing either two new stem cells, or two early progenitor cells, or one of each. When a stem cell divides to produce another stem cell, it is said to self-renew. The new cell has the potential to then make more stem cells. When a stem cell divides to produce an early progenitor cell, it's said to differentiate; meaning that the new cell is more specialized in form and function. An early progenitor cell does not have the potential of a stem cell to make many different types of cells. It can only make cells in its particular lineage. Early progenitor cells can self-renew or go in either of two ways. One type giving rise to astrocytes, and the other type will ultimately produce neurons or oligodendrocytes.

Thanks to technology it is even possible to grow entirely new sets of neurons in cultured media; this can be demonstrated in an experiment conducted by Dr. Thomas De Marse and his team which showcased a petri dish of rat neurons controlling a flight simulator. Typically the culture needs to be fed about once a week with nutrients in order to keep the neurons alive. With such experiments in mind, modern science has been able to give us a glimpse under the hood of brain in order to better understand such processes. As with the hippocampus of a rat, we too go through neurogenesis within a region called the dentate gyrus; and it's in this region that our hippocampus is located and the majority of neurogenesis takes place. Documentation from multiple sources suggest that the average human replaces around 700 new neurons everyday, and that the rate of regeneration can be affected both negatively and positively by many factors such as diet, exercise (running being a major generator as seen in mice), stress, and even more passionate and or recreational endeavors such as sex. As we age the rate of neurogenesis does decline, however, it never ceases entirely, thus meaning that even old dogs can learn new tricks.

IV. Neuroplasticity
Neuroplasticity is defined as being the brain's ability to change in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can have negative or positive influence at any age across the lifespan of a person. It refers to the physiological changes in the brain that happen as the result of our interactions with our environment; whether that be our diets, people whom we interact with, and even our daily tasks such as brushing our teeth or learning a new phone number for business relations. In fact, it is a basis for much of our cognitive and physical rehabilitation processes as it plays a major role in the recovery from brain injury. Part of the rehabilitation process actually utilizes what is known as neurogenesis, the birthing of new neurons from neural precursor cells, which was discussed in the precious section. Such reprogramming of the brain allows for a function previously managed by a damaged region of the brain to be shifted to another undamaged portion of the brain; considering that the connections among the cells are extremely receptive to such change and expansion; and it could been seen similarly to an HDD setup in Raid-0 for hot-swapping.

Along with the aforementioned environmental factors, there are numerous internal stimuli that have quite the profound affect on the brain and can either aid or hinder neural development. Such systems such as the endocannabinoid system are just one of many major integral structures which can have an extreme impact on the psyche of a human being. Cannabinoid receptors, which are a class of cell membrane receptors in the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, are located throughout the body and are involved in numerous physiological processes. Currently there are two well-known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain, but also in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. The CB2 receptor is expressed mainly in the immune system and hematopoietic cells, however research has found the existence of such receptors in parts of the brain as well. Evidence exists that suggest that there are also novel cannabinoid receptors, aptly non-CB1 and non-CB2, which are expressed in endothelial cells and in the central nervous system. Cannabinoid receptors are activated by three major groups of ligands: endocannbinoids, produced by the mammillary body; plant cannabinoids (such as delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, produced by plants in the Cannabaceae family); and synthetic cannabinoids which are classified considering the base structure of the cannabinoid (e.g. CP-xxxx, WIN-xxxx, JWH-xxxx, UR-xxx, and PB-xx). All of the endocannbinoids and phytocannabinoids (plant based cannabinoids) are lipophilic, such as fat soluble compounds.

Considering how neurons work, which again, was discussed in the previous section, we can see that cannabinoids are essential in neural networking within the brain, however cannabinoids work differently than other neurotransmitters as they actually work in reverse. When a postsynaptic neuron is activated, cannabinoids are manufactured on-the-fly from lipid precursors, otherwise known as fat cells, which are already present in the neuron. They are then released from the cell and travel backward, not forward, to the presynaptic neuron, where they attach to cannabinoid receptors. This is important because of the fact that cannabinoids act on presynaptic cells, so they can control what happens after such cells are activated. In general, cannabinoids function somewhat like a dimming mechanism for presynaptic neurons, limiting the amount of neurotransmitter that gets released, which in turn affects how electro-chemical signals are sent, received, and processed by the cell.

Animal and human research have shown that environmental stimulation is critical for enhancing and maintaining cognitive function. Novel situations, ideas, other forms of stimulants (non-chemical), focused attention and challenges are also essential components of enhancing cognitive function. Perceived challenge is associated with enjoyment of a task and it functions as reinforcement for humans. Even when additional stimulation was not provided to a group of mice until they were middle-aged, an enriched environment resulted in a fivefold increase in neuronal phenotypes, or the physical characteristics of an organism (e.g. color, size, and or growth patterns), that were associated with improvements in learning, behavior, and also spacial and locomotive cognition. In addition, the new and enriching experiences resulted in decreased age dependent degeneration as shown by less accumulation of lipofuscin in the dentate gyrus.

Music is also another complex and multisensory form of enrichment and has a positive influence on neuroplasticity in several regions of the brain because it requires integration of audiovisual information as well as appreciation of abstract constructs. Magnetoencephalography, a functional neuroimaging technique used for mapping brain activity using natural magnetic fields, measures with individuals with an average age of 25 to 45 found that the anterior prefrontal cortex played a central role, and that the neuroplastic response was greater in musicians with long term training than was noted in those with short term training. After four months of piano lessons, people aged 60 to 84 years of age enjoyed improved mood as well as significant improvements in the cognitive skills of attention, control, motor function, visual processing, and executive functioning. Healthy non-musician individuals aged 60 to 84 responded to classical background music with significant increase in their processing speed in comparison to groups with silence or white noise.

V. Conclusion
In summary, we should note that there are a multitude of factors that are responsible for how the psyche of a human forms, and we can conclude that those factors are mainly genetic and environmental factors. As previously discussed in the sections of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity, the early stages of the developing mind are strongly affected by genetic factors; for example, genes affect the migration of newly birthed neurons to their correct locations in the brain and are also vital in how they interact; they also allow the brain to reconfigure itself based on input provided by environmental factors. Environmental factors are crucial to the developing brain as those inputs are processed within the mind which in turn stimulates neural activity, and repeated stimulations strengthens synaptic connections. Such connections can be also be disturbed however, but are typically pruned off if the connection is too weak. Early brain development is the foundation of human adaptability and resilience, but such qualities do come at a price. Because experiences have such a great potential to affect brain development, children are especially vulnerable to persistent negative experiences during such a period. However, the early years of development are also a window of opportunity for parents, caregivers, and communities as positive early experiences have a dramatic effect on children's chances for achievement, success, and happiness.

As technology sprints towards a singularity of being indistinguishable from ourselves, it is only proper to ponder: how will technology affect such experiences and in the coming decades in terms of neuroscience and artificial intelligence, how can we best prepare ourselves to coexist with our creations; even if that means isolating said creations. Considering that we, as humans, have mapped our genetic code, and are beginning to create entirely new neural structures from select samples of proteins that can control computer systems, it should go without saying that there should be guidelines. However, I am not in any way shape or form a neuroscientist nor a bureaucrat, and so I cannot draw upon previous experience in order to deliver any advice nor solace in such an area; but I can give my opinion, and the only advice I can truly offer is: sandbox everything in a closed circuit environment. It sounds obvious, but there are individuals, and even collectives, that are developing such neural and AI systems on LAN networks and even more heartwrenchingly on WAN networks in order to aggregate data. Until we are positive of how true neural networks behave without a body, we should always assume that such a creation will ultimately manifest into the very thing we are trying to create, but most likely when we're not expecting it.

With those things in mind, I would like to take a few moments in order to restate a few things about the human psyche that should be quite clear now that we've made it this far in the discussion. Firstly, the human mind is an extremely sophisticated yet overwhelmingly fragile piece of wetware that is one the most profound objects in nature. Second, considering how fragile the psyche is we should bear in mind that when approaching another, we do not fully understand another's mind even if we've known them for a prolonged period of time, and this is again due to the complex nature of the brain itself; and so, we must remember to treat others the same way we would like to be treated; the golden rule in life. Third and lastly, since the brain is so incredible and complex, it is possible that our brains are still not done evolving and even becoming more efficient as we revolve through the eons; leaving the question: what is the upper limit that the mammalian brain can achieve in terms of processing power and efficacy; as it seems there is still quite a lot of room for improvement.

In conclusion, I would like to thank you all for dedicating some time to read my letter as I know I have droned on long enough talking about the brain and all that jazz. But I really do find it interesting, and I enjoy learning about my own afflictions and where they stem from. Hopefully you think so too and have also learned a thing or two along the way. This letter took quite some time to write and literal blood, sweat, and tears have gone into it, so hopefully it makes some sort of impact; whether that's an entire movement being born, a smile forming, or even a laugh because of any grammatical or ideological flukes. Either way, please remember to stay vigilant and to help others in need when possible; even if it's just allowing a person to rant about non-sense, or quietly sitting with them so they feel comforted; as it's not always the large hoorah's and festive parties that can ease a persons mind; sometimes, it's just the little things that count.

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